What Is Puja?

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pūjā (reverence, honor, worship)

Puja Definition

A puja is a Hindu ritual of worship and reverence to honor and connect with a deity, a sacred object, or a manifestation of the divine. Puja is a fundamental practice in Hinduism and is also observed in other Indian religions like Buddhism and Jainism.

Puja Deep Dive

During a puja, various rituals and offerings are performed to express devotion, seek blessings, and deepen one’s spiritual connection with the divine.

These rituals may include the recitation of mantras, the offering of flowers, incense, fruits, sweets, and other items, as well as the lighting of lamps or candles. The purpose of a puja is to create a sacred atmosphere, communicate with the deity, and express one’s respect and devotion.

Puja can be conducted in a personal or family setting, in temples, during festivals, or on special occasions.

a puja plate in front of an orange background

How Is A Puja Performed?

The exact details of a puja can vary depending on the event, the deity being worshiped, the specific tradition or sect of Hinduism, and personal or cultural customs. However, below you can find a general outline of how to perform a puja:

1. Preparation

  • Choose a clean and quiet place for the puja, such as a home shrine or temple.
  • Bathe and wear clean, modest clothing.
  • Arrange the necessary items for the puja, including an image or idol of the deity, offerings such as flowers, incense, fruits, and a lamp (diya), as well as a bell and a plate.

2. Set Up the Altar

  • Place the image or idol of the deity on a clean and decorated altar or shrine.
  • Position the offerings in an orderly manner.
  • Light the lamp and incense, to create a sacred atmosphere.

3. Invocation

  • Begin the puja by invoking the presence of the deity. This can be done through the recitation of a specific mantra or prayer that calls upon the deity to grace the puja.

4. Worship and Offerings

  • Offer flowers, incense, and other items to the deity as gestures of respect and devotion.
  • Recite mantras, hymns, and prayers specific to the deity or tradition.
  • Perform the arati by waving a lamp or incense in front of the deity to create a symbolic light representing the illumination of knowledge.
  • A bell can be rung during various stages of the puja, signifying the devotee’s presence and alerting the deity to their worship.
three people wearing orange performing puja

5. Meditation and Contemplation

  • Spend time in meditation and contemplation, focusing on the form, qualities, and teachings of the deity. This is an opportunity for spiritual introspection and connecting with the divine.

6. Prasada Offering

  • After the puja, offer the items placed before the deity (flowers, fruits, etc.) to the deity by raising them to the forehead and then distributing them as prasada to those present. Prasada is considered blessed and is consumed as a symbol of receiving the deity’s grace.

7. Closing the Puja

  • Conclude the puja by offering a final prayer or mantra, expressing gratitude and seeking the deity’s blessings.
  • Bow before the deity as a sign of respect and surrender.
  • As a final act, touch your head to the ground as a gesture of humility and devotion.

The frequency of performing pujas can vary. Some people conduct daily pujas in their homes, while others may do so on special occasions, during festivals, or when seeking divine guidance or blessings.

a woman lighting candles for puja

What Are The Key Elements Of A Puja?

The key elements and practices of a traditional puja may include:

An Altar or Shrine: A designated space or altar is set up for the puja, adorned with images or idols of the deity or deities being worshiped. The shrine is often decorated with flowers, incense, and other offerings.

Recitation of Mantras and Chants: Mantras, sacred chants, and prayers are recited during the puja. These mantras are considered powerful and are used to invoke and communicate with the deity.

Giving Offerings: Devotees offer various items to the deity, such as flowers, incense, fruits, sweets, rice, water, and lamps (diyas). These offerings symbolize respect, devotion, and surrender.

Arati: An arati is the waving of a lamp or incense in front of the deity to create a symbolic light that dispels darkness and represents the illumination of knowledge.

Ringing a Bell: The ringing of a bell is common during puja. It is believed to purify the environment and alert the deities to the devotees’ presence.

Prasada: After the puja, the offerings are considered blessed by the deity, and they are distributed as prasad to the devotees. Prasada is viewed as a divine gift and is usually consumed as a symbol of receiving the deity’s grace.

Practicing Meditation and Reflection: Some pujas include periods of meditation, introspection, and recitation of scriptures, allowing the devotee to connect with the deity and reflect on spiritual teachings.

Celebrating Occasions and Festivals: Pujas are conducted on various occasions and Hindu festivals to celebrate and honor specific deities. For example, the worship of Lord Ganesha is common during Ganesh Chaturthi, while the worship of Goddess Durga is prominent during Navaratri.

Performing Personal and Family Worship: Pujas can be performed on a daily basis by individuals and families as a part of their daily spiritual practice, or they may be conducted in temples, community centers, and during special events.

a puja offering

Puja In Your Life

Puja is a devotional practice and an element of bhakti yoga. It is not essential to practice puja as a yoga practitioner, however, there are aspects of this ritual that may be carried into a yogi’s daily life.

Below you will find some suggestions for acts of devotion that can be incorporated in your daily practice:

1. Setting Up a Sacred Space

Dedicate a specific area in your home as a sacred space for your daily puja or yoga practice. This can be a small altar or shrine where you place images or idols of your chosen deities or spiritual symbols.

2. Performing a Morning Ritual

Start your day with a short puja. Begin by lighting a lamp or candle and offering a few minutes of devotional worship. Express gratitude for the new day and seek blessings for a positive and mindful day ahead.

3. Chanting and Reciting Mantras

Include the chanting of mantras or devotional hymns as part of your daily practice. Chanting can be a meditative and uplifting experience. You can choose mantras that resonate with your spiritual path.

4. Offering Daily Prayers

Dedicate a few minutes each day to offer prayers to your chosen deities or the divine. This can involve expressing your thoughts, feelings, and aspirations in a conversational manner with the divine.

5. Providing Regular Offerings

Make daily offerings such as fresh flowers, incense, fruits, or water as a way to express your devotion and gratitude. The act of offering can be a mindful and devotional practice.

6. Practicing Meditation and Contemplation

Use your daily puja time for meditation and contemplation. Reflect on the qualities of the divine, your spiritual path, and your own inner journey.

7. Acknowledging Festivals and Special Occasions

On festival days or other special occasions, you may consider engaging in more elaborate pujas. Participate in community celebrations and ceremonies to deepen your connection with others and the divine.

8. Practicing Consistency and Dedication

Commit to a daily puja practice with consistency and dedication. Even if you have limited time, a simple and heartfelt daily practice can be meaningful.

9. Studying Devotional Texts

Alongside your puja, study devotional texts, scriptures, and stories related to your chosen deities or spiritual tradition. These texts can enhance your understanding and provide valuable insights.

10. Maintaining an Attitude of Service

Approach your puja as an act of service (seva) and devotion. Cultivate a selfless and humble attitude during your daily worship.

11. Sharing Prasada

If possible, share the prasada (blessed offerings) with family members or others, promoting a sense of community and sharing the divine blessings.

Integrating daily puja, or elements of it, into your life can act as a reminder of the sacred within our everyday lives. Let this practice inspire you on your yoga journey.

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To go deep and expand your yogic knowledge, access our free Yoga Terms Encyclopedia, where we host a profound wealth of ancient and timeless yogic wisdom in an accessible modern format.

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Amy is a yoga teacher and practitioner based in Brighton.

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